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  Dec 12, 2017
 
 
    
2017-2018 Colleges of Law General Catalog

Juris Doctor (JD)


8.1 JD - Course Descriptions*


NOTE*: All required courses are given each year at each campus. However, to offer students the broadest possible range of elective courses between the two campuses, elective courses are offered on a rotating basis depending in part on student interest and faculty availability. Not all listed electives are offered each year, and some electives may not be offered at all during the time a given student attends the School. It is anticipated that each elective will be offered at least once every three years at one campus or the other. Courses listed with “Required” are required for graduation; others are elective except to the extent a student must take courses offered during a particular semester/session to fulfill unit load requirements. All courses are letter-graded except those marked “P/F” for Pass/Fail grading.

Course Descriptions 

8.2 JD - Academic Program


A. Educational Objectives


The School has established three institution-wide learning competencies, Knowledge of Law, Practical Skills, and Ethical and Professional Values, as detailed in Section 3.5, Educational Objectives . For the Juris Doctor program, the following Program Objectives and Student Learning Outcomes have been established:

JD Program Learning Objectives JD Student Learning Outcomes
1.1 Legal Doctrine
Students will examine fundamental legal principles and conceptual frameworks of American law essential to competent law practice and licensure in California.
1.1 Students will demonstrate knowledge of fundamental legal principles and the structure, branches and functions of the U.S. and California legal systems.
1.2 Policy
Students will examine the role of public policy in the American legal system.
1.2 Students will examine and identify applicable public policies and demonstrate the ability to understand the relationship between law and policy.
2.1 Legal Analysis
Students will demonstrate the ability to perform competent legal analysis.
2.1a Students will demonstrate the ability to analyze statutes, cases and regulations.
2.1b Students will demonstrate the ability to identify applicable legal issues, link rules and significant facts, explain how the law applies to the facts, and articulate the predicted outcome.
2.1c Students will demonstrate the ability to assess complex legal and societal problems by identifying potential options, solutions, strategies, and policy implications for both law and non-law disciplines.
2.2 Research
Students will demonstrate the ability to perform effective legal research.
2.2 Students will perform efficient legal research, using hard copy and electronic resources, by effectively identifying, locating, updating and citing primary and secondary sources.
2.3 Oral and Written Communication
Students will demonstrate knowledge of the principles of effective oral and written legal communication.
2.3a Students will demonstrate the ability to orally advocate a particular legal position.
2.3b Students will demonstrate the ability to present a written legal analysis of a fact pattern that effectively states the issues, rules, application and conclusion in a format that is well-organized and clearly written.
2.4 Problem Solving
Students will demonstrate the ability to identify legal problems and strategize to achieve client goals.
2.4a Students will demonstrate the ability to determine relevant from irrelevant facts and omit irrelevant material.
2.4b Students will demonstrate the ability to effectively develop legal strategies to achieve client goals.
2.5 Dispute Resolution
Students will demonstrate understanding of the options and techniques for resolving legal disputes.
2.5a Students will identify options and techniques for resolving legal disputes.
2.5b Students will identify and apply rules applicable in dispute resolution proceedings.
3.1 Ethics and Professional Conduct
Students will identify and examine ethical concerns in the legal profession and demonstrate professionalism.
3.1 Students will identify ethical impacts in current legal issues and demonstrate knowledge of professional attributes of legal professionals such as adherence to ethical practice, civility, preparation, composure, team contribution, and excellence in work product.
3.2 Diversity
Students will acquire skills necessary to function in a diverse, multi-cultural world.
3.2 Students will demonstrate knowledge and ability to work effectively with individuals and groups with a variety of identities, cultures, backgrounds, and ideologies in a global legal environment.

 

B. Locations/Units/Credit Hours


  1. The Juris Doctor (JD) Program is offered on site at both campuses, although the option to begin the program in the Spring semester may be available at only one campus. A limited number of elective courses may be offered in the online format; State Bar regulations permit a JD student to earn academic credit for up to 12 units of online coursework. Students must successfully complete at least 84 units of credit to be eligible for award of the Juris Doctor degree.
  2. Each unit of credit requires 15 clock hours of instruction (or equivalent, as determined by the School). Each regularly scheduled 3-hour class constitutes 3 clock hours of instruction. One clock hour of classroom instruction is defined as 50 minutes of instruction, consistent with the CBE Guidelines for Accredited Law School Rules, Guideline 6.5(I)(3). Each clock hour of instruction presupposes substantial outside study and preparation by the student-between 2 to 3 hours of outside preparation for each hour of class time. Legal Internship and Directed Study are considered practicum courses and require 50 to 65 hours of participation to equal the 15 clock hours of instruction required for 1 unit of credit. Partial credits are not granted. Thus, for the 84-credit hour JD program, 1,260 clock hours of instruction are required and an additional 3,780 hours of outside study are expected for the degree.

Face to Face Lecture or Seminar Course

Each course conducted as a face to face lecture or seminar constitutes the following:

  1. 3 unit course: 45 clock hours of instruction and, generally, an additional 135 hours of outside preparation/study.
  2. 2 unit course: 30 clock hours of instruction and, generally, an additional 90 hours of outside preparation/study.
  3. 1 unit course: 15 clock hours of instruction and, generally, an additional 45 hours of outside preparation/study.

Distance Online or Hybrid Course

For distance online or hybrid courses, the total hours of work typically required for any class of work reflects: 1) synchronous and asynchronous components that facilitate faculty-student and student-student interaction (discussion boards, virtual classrooms, and chats) and 2) independent learning components (readings, recorded lectures, quizzes, and written assignments). Each course conducted as a distance online or hybrid course constitutes the following:

  1. 3 unit course: 45 clock hours of synchronous/asynchronous interaction and up to 135 hours of independent learning.
  2. 2 unit course: 30 clock hours of synchronous/asynchronous interaction and up to 90 hours of independent learning.
  3. 1 unit course: 15 clock hours of synchronous/asynchronous interaction and up to 45 hours of independent learning.

C. Semester/Session Length


Fall and Spring semesters include 15 weeks of instruction. A separate two-week study and exam period follows each Fall and Spring semester, except that for Spring-start 1st year and 4th year courses, final exams, when used, take place during the last class meeting or the following week. Summer sessions are generally 10 weeks long with finals administered during the last week of class.

D. Regular Class Schedule


Generally, regularly scheduled classes for each course meet once each week from 6:30 p.m. until 9:30 p.m. during the semester or session. During the regular academic year, regularly scheduled classes generally meet at the Santa Barbara campus on Monday, Tuesday, and Thursday and at the Ventura campus on Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday; classes for Spring-start and Fourth Year students may adhere to a different schedule. During Summer session, regularly scheduled classes meet on Monday through Thursday evenings at both campuses and, at times, on Saturdays during the day. Exceptions to the above may occur and will be posted on the bulletin boards, on TWEN, in course syllabi or otherwise announced.

E. Units Per Semester


Each Fall and Spring semester, all students must be enrolled in 9 units (typically 3 courses) with three exceptions:

  1. First year students who first enroll in January as part of a Spring-start cohort must enroll in the program of courses offered to that cohort, which will include at least 6 units.
  2. Advanced students (those who have successfully completed the first year curriculum, including Legal Research and Legal Writing) who are in good academic standing may also enroll in Legal Internship with the Legal Internship Director’s permission.
  3. Fourth-year students in their final semester must enroll in the number of units needed to graduate.

F. Units During Summer Session


  1. Minimum units: As provided in Section 6.3, continuous enrollment is expected of all JD students, including summer session, to allow students to complete required courses and additional units so that, when added to units completed during Fall and Spring semesters, the total will be at least 84 units. A student who receives the Dean’s approval to miss a single Summer session will likely be unable to complete required courses for graduation until the Summer session following the student’s fourth Spring semester.
  1. Maximum units: Students who have just completed the first-year curriculum may enroll in up to 6 units. Students who have just completed the second-year or third-year curriculum may enroll in up to eight units, including legal internship or directed study units.  Students requesting to take more than 8 units may file a Petition for Excess Units; the petition form is found on the Gateway
     
  2. Spring-start 1st year students: Students who enter in January as part of a Spring-start cohort must take 3 units (no more, no less) during the first Summer session following the first semester of enrollment to fulfill State Bar unit requirements that would affect students who might later seek to transfer to an unaccredited law school.

G. Principal (“Home”) Campus


Students are expected to complete their entire degree program at the campus where they initially enroll (the student’s “principal campus”) except they may enroll in Summer elective courses offered at either campus. With the Administration’s consent, a student may change his or her principal campus. A student will not be permitted to selectively enroll in courses at both campuses, with the exception of Summer electives. A student entering the 1st year in January as part of a Spring-start cohort will be enrolled as a student at the campus where the student intends to complete coursework for the JD degree (his or her “principal campus”), whether or not Spring-start courses are offered at that campus during the student’s first Spring semester of enrollment.

8.3 JD - Length of Program


  1. The School’s curriculum is designed to be completed in 4 years; limits are set forth below. For additional information, see Section 8.6, Sample Curriculum.
    1. Fall Starts: Students beginning their program in the Fall semester have two schedule options to complete degree requirements.
      1. Option 1, 3-1/2 year program (accelerated program): Upon completion of graduation requirements (see Section 12 ), the student may finish his/her program at the end of the student’s fourth Fall semester. Such a student’s degree will be conferred the following January. Only stronger students (generally, students with a cumulative GPA of 2.2 or above) should consider accelerating the program. To accelerate, a student must complete at least 21 units during his/her three Summer sessions and through Legal Internship or Directed Study projects. Students wishing to accelerate should be aware that this requires substantial additional Summer session attendance during all summers in the program, and that a student must petition to the Dean to take more than 6 units during any Summer session, as noted in Section 8.2.F above. The School does not encourage acceleration and not all students will be able to accelerate.
      2. Option 2, 4-year program: Students who begin the program in Fall must complete their degree requirements by the end of the student’s fourth Spring semester. Degrees will be conferred in May.
    2. Spring-starts: Students beginning their program in the Spring semester have one schedule option, a 4-year program. Spring-start students must complete their degree requirements by the end of their fourth Fall semester, with a degree conferral date in January.
  2. A student’s program may be required to depart from the above norms in special situations, such as when a student is on probation, is a transfer student, or has interrupted the customary sequence of study for any reason.
  3. Each student is responsible for planning his or her own program, within the limits of the School’s policies, so as to complete all course and graduation requirements within the time limits stated above. Students who do not carefully plan (by failing to take required Summer courses in an appropriate sequence, for example) may find it impossible to graduate at the intended time. The School has no provisions for partial course credit, so students may find it necessary to complete more than 84 units of credit to meet graduation requirements.
  4. In extraordinary circumstances and for good cause shown, a student may petition the Dean for permission to extend his or her program by one term to include, for Spring-start students only, the fourth Spring semester or, for Fall start students only, the Summer session following the fourth Spring semester. Degrees will not be awarded to students who have not completed the required 84 units by that time, except with the Dean’s permission upon good cause shown. A student who fails to timely complete requirements for the JD degree but meets eligibility requirements of the State Bar of California based on law school attendance may nonetheless be eligible to sit for the California State Bar. The School does not undertake nor assume any duty to advise students of the State Bar’s eligibility requirements; information should be sought from the Office of Admissions, Eligibility Department, of the State Bar of California (www.calbar.ca.gov).
  5. The Committee of Bar Examiners disallows the granting of a JD degree by an accredited law school to a student who has failed to complete the degree within 84 months of commencing the study of law.

8.4 JD - Required Courses


  1. The curriculum consists of required courses, elective courses and a required unit of Legal Internship. Required courses are given each year and must be taken by all students at the designated time in the curriculum. Further, students who elect to begin their program in a Spring-start cohort will be required, in their first Spring and first Fall semester, to take designated courses that would otherwise be elective in nature (“designated electives”) thus reducing the number of true elective units available to meet the 84-unit graduation requirement. Some flexibility applies in the fourth year. (See below and Sections 8.5 , Elective Courses and 8.7 , Legal Internship.) Except as noted in the Course Descriptions, required courses are offered on a letter-graded basis.
  2. Academic Year Required Courses
    1. First Year through Third Year: During the Fall and Spring semesters of the first three full curriculum years, students take a total of 18 units of required courses each year.

      Students who enroll as part of a Spring-start cohort will take, in their first Spring semester, a total of six units designated electives. In their remaining academic years, they will take 18 units of required courses.
    2. Fourth Year: In fourth year, required courses are prioritized and need to be taken only as necessary to complete the 84-unit and other academic requirements set forth in this Catalog. The following provisions apply in fourth year:
      1. Students in their final semester must enroll in the number of units needed to equal or exceed the 84-unit graduation requirement.
      2. A fourth-year student must enroll in Constitutional Criminal Procedure and Bar Studies, and may enroll in the remaining fourth-year course offered in Fall semester if necessary to meet that student’s required unit minimum. Thus, a fourth-year student expecting to complete law studies at the end of the Fall semester and who needs 6 units to graduate would be required to enroll in Constitutional Criminal Procedure (3) and Bar Studies (3). One who needs 9 units to graduate would also enroll in the remaining fourth-year course.
      3. In Spring semester, only two fourth-year courses are offered and students planning to graduate upon completion of the Spring semester may take one or both to meet their required 6-unit minimum. Legal Internship or Directed Study may be offered as one of the required courses.
  3. Summer Required Courses
    1. In addition to the required courses offered during the Fall and Spring semesters (regular academic year), each student must complete all of the following required Summer courses as follows:
      1. Legal Research (2 units) and Legal Writing (2 units), Summer session after completing the first year curriculum (if Legal Writing was not completed earlier).
      2. Advanced Legal Writing (2 units), Summer session after completing the second year curriculum, and
      3. Appellate Advocacy (2 units), Summer session after completing the third year curriculum.
    2. Each student must also complete additional elective course units that, when added to the foregoing and the Fall/Spring curriculum (including first Spring semester, for Spring-start students), will total at least 84 units by, for Fall start students, no later than the end of the fourth Spring semester following the first Fall semester of enrollment or, for Spring-start students, no later than the end of the fourth Fall semester of enrollment.
  4. Additional Graduation Course Requirements
    1. All students must complete a 1-unit pro bono Legal Internship. (See Section 8.7 .)
    2. Students are expected to enroll and participate in the School’s customized Bar Review program.

8.5 JD - Elective Courses


  1. Generally, elective courses are given during Summer sessions and on a letter-graded basis, with exceptions as noted in the Course Descriptions. In addition, eligible students may earn elective credits for Legal Internship throughout the year. (See Section 8.7 , Legal Internship.) Students may take Summer elective courses at either or both campuses; required courses must be taken at a student’s principal campus except that when Spring-start curriculum is not offered at a student’s principal campus, the student may take the Spring-start curriculum at the campus where it is offered.
  2. Elective offerings depend on student demand, instructor availability, and other factors. The nature and quantity of elective course offerings vary from summer to summer. Not all electives are offered each year; some electives may not be offered at all during the time a given student attends the School.

    Spring-start students: Such students must complete 3 units of elective course work during the first Summer session following their Spring enrollment, and take required courses each Summer session after completing their first year. They should be aware that their elective choices may be limited based upon required prerequisites and that, as compared to a student who begins in the Fall semester, they will have fewer true electives remaining to fulfill the 84-unit graduation requirement.
  3. To the extent online courses are offered by the School, a student may take a limited number of such courses as defined by the Committee of Bar Examiners (CBE). Unit limits as set by the CBE are not subject to waiver for an individual student.

8.6 JD - Sample Four-Year Curriculum*


This section contains an example of the required JD curriculum (with elective units) for a student who begins law studies in a Fall semester and completes the 84-unit degree requirement at the end of the fourth following Spring semester. (See below for Spring-start example.) Contact the Administration Office for other examples (e.g., completing at the end of the fourth Fall semester).

Example of Curriculum for Student Starting in Fall and Graduating in Spring


Course Grade Basis Fall Spring Summer
1st Year Units [One (1) unit = 15 clock hours of instruction]
Legal Analysis & Writing Pass/Fail 3    
Contracts I & II (full year course) Letter 3 3  
Torts I & II (full year course) Letter 3 3  
Criminal Law Letter   3  
Legal Research Letter     2
Legal Writing Letter     2
Units of Elective courses Varies     approx. 1
Total 1st Year Units: 23   9 9 5
2nd Year Units [One (1) unit = 15 clock hours of instruction]
Community Property Letter 3    
Real Property I & II (full year course) Letter 3 3  
Civil Procedure I & II (full year course) Letter 3 3  
Wills & Trusts Letter   3  
Advanced Legal Writing Letter     2
Units of Elective courses Varies     approx. 3
Total 2nd Year Units: 23   9 9 5
3rd Year Units [One (1) unit = 15 clock hours of instruction]
Evidence I & II (4 unit course) Letter 1 3  
Professional Responsibility Letter 2    
Constitutional Law (full year course) Letter 3 3  
Business Associations Letter 3    
Remedies Letter   3  
Appellate Advocacy** Pass/Fail     2
Legal Internship Pass/Fail     1
Units of Elective courses Varies     approx. 2
Total 3rd Year Units: 23   9 9 5
4th Year Units [One (1) unit = 15 clock hours of instruction]
Const. Criminal Procedure Letter 3    
Bar Studies Pass/Fail 3    
Elective Pass/Fail 3    
Elective Letter or Pass/Fail   3  
Required course TBA Letter or Pass/Fail   3  
Customized Bar Review program*** Not Graded   0  
Total 4th Year Units: 15   9 6  
Total Cumulative Units: 84

* Course offerings and course schedules are subject to change.
** Participation is mandatory for students in Class of 2018 and thereafter.
*** Participation is mandatory for students in Class of 2016 and thereafter (extracurricular program following Bar Studies).

Example of Curriculum for Student Starting in Spring and Graduating in Fall


Course Grade Basis Fall Spring Summer
Spring-start Semester/First Summer Units [One (1) unit = 15 clock hours of instruction]
Elective Pass/Fail   1  
Elective Letter   2  
Elective Letter   3  
Units of Elective courses Varies     3
Total Units (Pre-First Fall semester): 9     6 3
1st Year Units [One (1) unit = 15 clock hours of instruction]
Legal Analysis & Writing Pass/Fail 2    
Contracts I & II (full year course) Letter 3 3  
Torts I & II (full year course) Letter 3 3  
Criminal Law Letter   3  
Legal Research Letter     2
Legal Writing Letter     2
Total 1st Year Units: 22   9 9 4
2nd Year Units [One (1) unit = 15 clock hours of instruction]
Community Property Letter 3    
Real Property I & II (full year course) Letter 3 3  
Civil Procedure I & II (full year course) Letter 3 3  
Wills & Trusts Letter   3  
Advanced Legal Writing Letter     2
Units of Elective courses Varies     approx. 2
Total 2nd Year Units: 22   9 9 4
3rd Year Units [One (1) unit = 15 clock hours of instruction]
Evidence I & II (4 unit course) Letter 1 3  
Professional Responsibility Letter 2    
Constitutional Law (full year course) Letter 3 3  
Business Associations Letter 3    
Remedies Letter   3  
Appellate Advocacy** Pass/Fail     2
Legal Internship Pass/Fail     1
Units of Elective courses Varies     approx. 1
Total 3rd Year Units: 22   9 9 4
4th Year Units [One (1) unit = 15 clock hours of instruction]
Const. Criminal Procedure Letter 3    
Bar Studies Pass/Fail 3    
Elective Pass/Fail 3    
Customized Bar Review program*** Not Graded   0  
Total 4th Year Units: 9   9    
Total Cumulative Units: 84

* Course offerings and course schedules are subject to change.
** Participation is mandatory for students in Class of 2018 and thereafter.
*** Participation is mandatory for students in Class of 2016 and thereafter (extracurricular program following Bar Studies).

NOTE: Spring-start students wishing to earn a Certificate of Concentration should consult the Administration Office prior to the first Summer session, as careful planning will be required to accumulate 8 units of concentration credit. Students are cautioned that it may not be possible to take the desired number of concentration units in any given Summer due to issues of scheduling and availability of courses at a particular campus. To complete a concentration within 84 units, a Spring-start student could elect to take only 6 units in the last semester (foregoing Trial Practice) and 3 units of additional Summer elective coursework, for a total of 9 available elective units (plus one Legal Internship unit) within which to complete 8 qualifying concentration units. As an alternative to taking fewer units in the Fall semester of Fourth Year, a student could elect to pay for one or more additional units of Summer elective credit to earn the 8 qualifying concentration units.

8.7 JD - Legal Internship


  1. A student is eligible to apply for a Legal Internship after successfully completing the first year curriculum, including Legal Research and Legal Writing. This program enables students to work under the supervision of practicing attorneys and judges for academic credit. It exposes students to real-world practice to enhance their understanding of the law and introduces them to the professional obligation to provide pro bono service. All Legal Internship credits are earned on a Pass/Fail basis. The program is overseen by the Faculty Chair, who may delegate any such oversight duties to a faculty designate.

    A student should begin making plans one full semester before s/he intends to begin work on a Legal Internship, to allow time to complete the requirements detailed below.
     
  2. Advanced students may apply for certification under the Practical Training of Law Students Rules of the State Bar of California, to enhance their clinical experience. (See also Section 13.G Practical Training of Law Students .)
  3. Mandatory/Elective Credits
     
    1. Students are required to earn at least 1 unit of Legal Internship credit; they may elect to earn up to 6 units of combined Legal Internship / Directed Study with the permission of the Faculty Chair.
       
    2. The required unit must be earned in an internship working on pro bono matters. (See item 4 below.) Most internships are available during regular business hours, but the Administration will work with students whose hours of employment conflict with regular business hours to find alternative internship opportunities.
       
    3. To avoid repetitive activity, from which the incremental learning experience is insufficient to justify additional credit, the Chair will almost never approve more than 3 units of Legal Internship with the same supervising judge or attorney or with the same organization. The Chair will consider approving an internship at a new site only after the student has fulfilled all requirements for, or terminated, his or her original proposal.
       
    4. Work performed by the student for compensation is not eligible for internship credit.
  4. Required Training and Hours
     
    1. “50-hours plus Training” Legal Internship
      1. Hours: Subject to the provisions of paragraph D.1. above, each unit of Legal Internship credit approved requires the student to successfully complete at least 50 hours of law-related work.
      2. Internship Training: Before beginning the student’s first Legal Internship, s/he must successfully complete a one-time, 5-hour Legal Internship Training session, typically held on a Saturday. The training session is not credit-bearing and so tuition is not charged. No further training will be required to earn additional internship units. A student is eligible to attend training after having completed both Legal Research and Legal Writing. One training session will be offered each semester, alternating between campuses. The training requirement is not subject to waiver and is a requirement for graduation.
  5. Qualifications

    To participate in a Legal Internship, a student must: have successfully completed the first year curriculum, (including Legal Research and Legal Writing); have taken the required training; be in good academic standing at the beginning of a specifically approved Legal Internship program; and have registered and made payment for the Legal Internship course.
     
  6. Legal Internship Sites
     
    1. All work must be performed by the student without compensation and under the direct supervision of a judge or attorney who is unrelated to the student. A supervising attorney must be an active member of the State Bar of California who is practicing law. It is the student’s responsibility to locate an acceptable position, but the School offers counseling to assist in finding internships.
       
    2. Pro bono internship sites: Students may perform their required pro bono internship unit by working on assignments in public law offices (e.g., Public Defender or other court-appointed defense counsel, County Counsel, City Attorney, or District Attorney), with judges, or with other governmental or non-profit organizations engaged in full-time legal activity. Work that, in the Chair’s opinion, is of an essentially political or lobbying nature will not qualify for credit. Pro bono internship units may be earned with private attorneys only when all internship hours will be performed exclusively on pro bono cases (cases taken from inception for no compensation or possibility of compensation to the attorney) that serve some generally recognized public good (such as helping the disadvantaged or providing legal services to a non-profit organization); work on “low bono” cases (for which a private attorney receives some compensation) does not qualify as work on pro bono cases.
       
    3. For-profit internship sites (including work on low bono cases): Students may receive internship credit for work on matters for which the law firm or its attorneys will be compensated, but only after the student has completed the required 1-unit pro bono internship.
  7. Procedures
     
    1. A student should sign up for Legal Internship Training no later than the semester/session before s/he intends to begin an internship.
       
    2. Qualified students who have located a Legal Internship must present, and obtain the Chair’s/designate’s approval of, a properly completed Legal Internship Proposal form (from the Gateway (https://My.CollegesofLaw.edu/) before beginning work for credit. The completed form must provide all information required on the form or requested by the Chair, and must be signed by the proposed supervisor.

      If approved, the program of work/activity described in that proposal, including any special conditions imposed by the Chair, will be the Legal Internship Program specifically approved for that student.
       
    3. The student may begin working toward credit only after s/he has received notice of approval from the Chair on the Legal Internship Proposal form and has paid tuition for the Legal Internship course.
       
    4. Students will not be approved to begin an internship after the end of the second week of a term, except in extraordinary circumstances approved by the Chair.
  8. Registration and Payment
     
    1. After the Chair approves the internship, the Registrar will manually register the student prior to the start of the next academic term. Upon approval by the Chair for good cause, students may be manually registered for an internship that arises during a semester or to begin an internship during the semester break preceding the start of the semester for which the internship is approved.
       
    2. A student must pay tuition for all internship units upon registration for such units. The School charges tuition for each unit of Legal Internship at the same rate as all other courses.
  9. Interim Evaluations

    The Chair will supervise a student’s internship performance. If the internship involves more than two units, the School will contact the student’s supervisor for a written interim evaluation of the student’s performance. If an interim evaluation report indicates that the student’s performance is unsatisfactory, or that the student’s program is not fulfilling the Legal Internship Program’s objectives, the School reserves the right to notify the student that approval for the Legal Internship is withdrawn. If approval is withdrawn, the student will not be entitled to earn any credit for that Legal Internship and will receive a grde of Fail.
     
  10. Report/Log/Final Evaluation
     
    1. After completing the required number of hours, the student must provide the Chair with:
       
      1. A carefully drafted and proofread reflective report, in the format required by the School of at least four full typewritten pages (double-spaced), that summarizes the work performed by the student in the Legal Internship and identifies the manner in which the experience enhanced the student’s preparedness for the practice of law. Papers not meeting these requirements will be returned to the student for revision.
         
      2. A log of hours worked and a description of the work performed.
         
      3. A completed Final Evaluation Form from the supervisor verifying the number of hours of law-related work completed and that the quality of the work was of a satisfactory level to warrant credit. It is the student’s responsibility to inform the School that the Legal Internship has been completed and to request that the School send the Final Evaluation Form to the supervisor. It is also the student’s responsibility to ensure that the supervisor properly completes and returns the form to the School.
         
      4. Documentation in a format approved by the School that the student met with the supervising attorney or judge to evaluate the internship and the student’s performance, including whether the School’s student learning outcomes, and the student’s goals and learning objectives, have been met.
    2. The Chair is responsible for deciding whether the student is entitled to receive credit for the Legal Internship.
  11. Time to Complete Internship

    All internship requirements MUST be completed by the last day of the semester or session during which the internship was undertaken, except in extraordinary circumstances approved in advance by the Chair. Prior to that deadline, a student may request the Chair, on the appropriate form, for a one-term continutation; additional extensions are not permitted. A grade of “Fail” will be awarded for Legal Internship to a student who either fails to complete his/her internship within the applicable time period (whether as originally approved or as extended pursuant to a timely-requested extension), or who otherwise fails to complete all internship requirements. The student’s account will not be credited for the tuition charged for a failed internship.

8.8 JD - Certificates of Concentration


  1. Students or alumni who have qualified for the JD degree may also earn a Certificate of Concentration in Business Law, Criminal Law, Family Law, or Estate Planning, to be awarded upon graduation or thereafter.
     
  2. To earn a Certificate, an individual must, in addition to completing all requirements of the law program:
     
    1. Complete as part of the law program or within 3 summer sessions thereafter 8 units of elective courses qualified for credit toward a single concentration (with a grade of at least “C” or “Pass”).
       
    2. Submit a Petition for Certificate of Concentration form to the Administration Office, listing qualified courses completed, or courses the applicant wishes to have considered as qualified courses. Qualified courses are indicated by concentration below:

B    C     E     F     (B=Business Law; C=Criminal Law; E=Estate Planning; F=Family Law)

X

 

X X

 Alternative Dispute Resolution

X

 

X X

 Bankruptcy Law

X

 

 

 

 Business Planning

X

 

X

X

 Civil Law and Motion Practice

X X X X

 Client Interviewing & Counseling

 

X

 

 

 Confessions Law

 

X

 

 

 Constitutional Criminal Procedure - Selected Topics

 

X

 

 

 Criminal Defenses

 

X

 

 

 Criminal Pretrial Motions

X       Introduction to the Cuba Embargo and Cuban Legal System (study abroad)
X

 

X X

 Depositions

X

X X X

 Directed Study (activities performed must be applicable to requested concentration)

 

X

 

 

 Domestic Violence

X

 

 

 

 Drafting Documents

 

X X X

 Elder Law

X

 

 

 

 Employment Law

X

 

 

 

 Entertainment Law

X

 

 

 

 Environmental Law

X

 

 

 

 Environmental Law - Selected Topics

 

 

X X

 Estate Planning

 

 

X X

 Family Law

X X X X

 Forensic Science

 

X

 

 

 Immigration & Crime

X

X X X

 Insurance Law

X

 

 

 

 Intellectual Property

 

X

 

X

 Juvenile Law

X

 

 

 

 Law of Sales

X X X X

 Law Practice Management

X X X X

 Legal Internship (activities performed must be applicable to requested concentration)

X

X X X

 Mental Health Law

 

X

 

 

 Moot Court

X X X X

 Negotiation Workshop

X

 

X X

 Preparation for Trial

X

X

X

X

 Professional Skills

X X X X

 Psychology for Lawyers

X  

 

 

 Real Estate Transactions

 

X

 

 

 Restorative Justice

X

X X X

 Starting Your Solo Practice

X

 

X X

 Taxation

X X X X

 Trial Practice

X

 

 

 

 Uniform Commercial Code

X X X X

 Writs and Appeals

  1. No more than a total of two (2) units of Legal Internship and/or Directed Study credit may be applied toward a Certificate; credit is appropriate where, as determined by the Dean or Dean’s designate, the student’s activities focused on the student’s area of concentration or would tend to develop skills needed by a practitioner in that area.
     
  2. Students who do not complete a Certificate of Concentration prior to graduation may do so within 3 summer sessions after graduation by fulfilling the requirements of Paragraph B above, successfully completing qualified courses offered by the School for MCLE credit. Qualified courses in the graduate’s area of concentration completed with a grade of at least ”C” or ”Pass” will be counted toward those requirements whether completed before or within 3 summer sessions after graduation.

8.9 JD - Directed Study


  1. Students in good academic standing who have successfully completed the second year may petition the Faculty Chair for permission to enroll in up to 3 units, graded on a Pass/Fail basis, of Directed Study under the supervision of the Faculty Chair or the Dean. Each unit of Directed Study requires the student to complete at least 50 hours of legal research and writing, in completing a research paper or other project the scope and length of which has the Dean or Faculty Chair’s prior approval. A student may earn no more than a total of 6 units of credit for Internship and Directed Study work, combined. All Directed Study credits are earned on a Pass/Fail basis.
     
  2. Time to Complete Directed Study

    All requirements must be completed by the last day of the semester or session during which the Directed Study was undertaken, except in extraordinary circumstances approved by the Dean or Chair. Prior to that deadline, a student may request the Dean or Chair, on the appropriate form, for a one-time continuation; additional extensions are not permitted. A grade of “Fail” will be awarded for Directed Study to a student who fails to complete his/her Directed Study within the applicable time period (whether as originally approved or as extended pursuant to a timely-requested extension), or who otherwise fails to complete all Directed Study requirements. The student’s account will not be credited for the tuition charged for a failed Directed Study.
     
  3. Directed Study Requirements

    The student must provide:
     
    1. A written research paper conforming in scope and length to that approved by the Faculty Chair and
       
    2. A log of hours worked and the work performed.
       

No credit will be awarded for any Directed Study until all of the foregoing requirements have been met, the Dean or Faculty Chair has deemed the research paper or other project worthy of a grade of “Pass”, and the student has paid the tuition due. No partial units of credit can be earned.
 

  1. The School charges tuition for each unit of credit awarded to the student for the completed Directed Study at the same rate as all other courses. Upon approval of the Directed Study, the student will be manually registered for the course and charged tuition for the unit(s).

8.10 JD - Registration Procedures


  1. Approximately 8 weeks prior to the start of each semester or session continuing students will be notified by JURIS e-mail about the availability of registration materials through the Gateway (https://My.CollegesofLaw.edu/.) Materials will include information about tuition, fees, class schedules, academic calendar, registration deadlines, required books, and registration period dates. Continuing students must register online through the Intuit link on the School’s website or the Gateway. Students are responsible to purchase or otherwise obtain the required books through outside vendors.
     
  2. Students registering for the first time will be e-mailed information about registration and First Year Orientation. At Orientation, student identification photographs will be taken; these pictures may be used by the School at its discretion, including for pictorial class rosters distributed to faculty.
     
  3. Before the start of the semester/session, the updated course syllabi will be available through the Gateway (https://My.CollegesofLaw.edu/).

9.1 JD - Attendance Policy


  1. The Committee of Bar Examiners of the State Bar of California (CBE) requires part-time students at an accredited law school such as this school to complete at least 1200 hours of study in residence. As the School’s JD program is considered to be a part-time program by the CBE, the hours of study must extend over a period of not less than 120 weeks to meet the legal educational requirements to sit for the California State Bar Examination and be certified to practice law in California. Under CBE standards “regular and punctual attendance” at classes is necessary to satisfy the educational requirement.
     
  2. Each student is responsible for satisfying the educational requirement of the CBE by regular and punctual class attendance. The CBE expects attendance at “at least 80% of the regularly scheduled class hours in each course in which a student is enrolled.” Students are considered absent if, for whatever reason, they are not marked present when roll is called or have not signed the roll sheet.
     
  3. Under the School’s separate attendance standards, a student is expected to attend substantially all classes in each course and to be absent only under compelling or unavoidable circumstances. For example, absences for planned personal events such as vacations do not qualify as compelling or unavoidable circumstances. Under the School’s standards, a student is also expected to arrive punctually, return from break on time, and depart only at the end of each session, so as to attend substantially all of the session and avoid disrupting the class.
     
  4. Students may be marked absent for non-participation in class, without further notice. The study of law requires active participation by each student, so “attendance” requires more than mere physical presence during the class session. All students are expected to be prepared to brief and discuss assigned cases and materials. If an instructor deems student participation essential to the educational objectives of the class, s/he may mark a student absent from class if the student does not present a brief or a substantive response when called upon to brief a case or otherwise participate in class. If an instructor adopts this rule it shall be applied equally to all students. If the student presents a case brief or otherwise participates in class discussion at the request of the instructor, the instructor shall not mark the student absent based on the quality of the student’s presentation.
     
  5. A student’s attendance record is relevant to and may be considered in all matters involving the student, such as petitions to continue on probation or be readmitted, petitions for excess units during the Summer sessions, scholarship applications, and nominations to Inns of Court. Attendance, per se, will not be factored into a course grade unless so stated in the course syllabus.
     
  6. A student who exhibits a pattern of absences, or untimely arrivals and departures, raises serious doubts that s/he is making a good faith effort to meet the School’s attendance standards, and is subject to any disciplinary action that the Dean considers appropriate. For example, such discipline may include probation, loss of academic credit, course withdrawal, administrative withdrawal, or dismissal.
     
  7. Serious doubts that a student is making a good faith effort to attend substantially all classes are also raised by a student’s absence: 1) in excess of those permitted by a special attendance policy announced in the syllabus of any course, or 2) from more than 20% of the regularly scheduled class hours in any course in which no special attendance policy is announced. Thus, a student incurs an excess absence: 1) when his or her absences exceed those permitted under an announced special attendance policy, or 2) if no special policy has been announced, when those absences exceed one class in a 1-unit course, two classes in a 2-unit course, or three classes in a 3-unit course. An excess absence will ultimately result in an administrative withdrawal of the student from Colleges of Law. 
     
  8. A student may petition the Dean for waiver of consequences for an excess absence in a single course. A student may file no more than two such petitions while enrolled at the School, whether or not the Dean has granted any of a student’s earlier petitions. Such a petition must be submitted within one week of the excess absence, explain the nature of each absence in that course, demonstrate that each absence was compelling or unavoidable, and show good cause why consequences should not be imposed. In deciding upon the petition, the Dean will consider whether the student’s absences in that course were compelling or unavoidable, as well as the extent to which the student’s overall pattern of absences demonstrates that the student has, or has not, been making a good faith effort to attend substantially all classes.  The student attends class through the deliberation, but will be administratively withdrawn if their petition is denied.
     
  9. A student may be administratively withdrawn for any excess absence. However, upon the third excess absence during a student’s enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, whether or not the Dean waived the imposition of consequences for earlier absences. An administratively withdrawn student lacks good standing and must seek re-entry/readmission to the School through the Academic Standards and Admissions Committee. Students are cautioned that the ASAC rarely grants re-entry/readmission. Further, re-entry/readmission may be subject to conditions imposed by the Committee of Bar Examiners (such as a requirement that the student seeking /readmission who had been academically disqualified during earlier enrollment must submit an LSAT score.
     
  10. In addition to the above provisions, a student will be administratively withdrawn from the JD program if the student is not in attendance over any period of 14 consecutive calendar days during a term, unless the student affirmatively indicates to the Registrar his/her intent to continue in the program.

9.2 JD - Roll Call/Attendance Roster


  1. The instructor will call roll at the beginning of each class. At the end of the class the instructor will circulate an attendance roster so that each student may sign. Students must be present at roll call and sign the attendance roster to be considered present.
     
  2. By signing the attendance roster students state to the School that they have attended substantially the entire class and did not leave the class before the instructor dismissed the class. Under no circumstances may a student sign the attendance roster for a class at which s/he was not in attendance for substantially the entire class, nor may any student sign the attendance roster for or on behalf of any other student. Violation of any of the provisions of this Paragraph is grounds for administrative discipline, up to and including expulsion, under Section 3.8, Student Code of Ethics and Conduct .

9.3 JD - Make-Up Classes


  1. Occasionally a regularly scheduled class must be cancelled and rescheduled. The Administration Office will attempt to notify students by e-mail should this occur. Due to time constraints, it is not always possible to contact each student when a class is cancelled.
     
  2. Make-up classes will be scheduled on evenings when classes are not usually held or on weekends. Attendance requirements for make-up classes are the same as for regularly scheduled classes. Thus, failure to attend a make-up class is counted as an absence.

9.4 JD - Ban on Commercially-Prepared Briefs


The use of commercially prepared briefs in the classroom is prohibited under any circumstances; students must prepare their own briefs.

10.1 JD - General Provisions


A. In administering its JD grading policies, the School seeks to maintain standards of scholarship that will benefit students as they prepare to meet the significant demands of law practice and the California Bar Examination. Further, the School is governed by the Committee of Bar Examiners (CBE), which requires that all California-accredited law schools:

“[M]ust adopt sound written scholastic standards that ensure that students who lack the capability to satisfactorily complete the law school’s JD program are not allowed to continue in the program.”

All courses are graded on the same standards of scholarship. To ensure equity between multiple sections at the School’s two campuses and relative uniformity of grades from academic year to academic year, all grades are subject to review and normalization. Grades become final after approval by the Faculty Chair.

B. Letter Grades

  1. A letter grading system is used for most courses. In letter-graded courses, grades are assigned from “A” to “F”, with numerical point equivalents on a 4-point scale:
  A 4.0 B- 2.7 D+ 1.3
  A- 3.7 C+ 2.3 D 1.0
  B+ 3.3 C 2.0 D- 0.7
  B 3.0 C- 1.7 F 0.0
  1. Grade designations denote the following:
  A/A- excellent scholarship
  B+/B/B- very good to good performance
  C+ satisfactory performance
  C satisfactory performance; at the minimum level of competence for good standing and satisfactory progress toward graduation
  C- performance below minimum level of competence for good standing and satisfactory progress toward graduation
  D+/D/D- performance well below minimum level of competence for good standing and satisfactory progress toward graduation
  F failing performance, insufficient for academic or residence credit
  1. As a further guideline and not as a guarantee, letter grades on individual essay examination questions generally reflect the following appraisal by faculty members:
  A/A- STRONG ANSWER. All major issues were spotted, rules were accurately stated, and facts were incorporated into analysis of issues in a relevant and focused manner. Some minor shortcomings may be present, but overall an excellent answer.
  B+/B/B- GOOD ANSWER. All or most issues were spotted, rules were generally correct, and analyses were relevant, but not as developed or detailed as they could be. Some weaknesses are present; but some very good material as well; an overall good to very good answer.
  C+/C PASSING. Answer demonstrates knowledge of doctrine and ability to apply it to a new fact scenario, but is not uniformly strong. Most issues were spotted and some good analysis, but several areas need improvement; all in all, a satisfactory answer.
  C- BELOW MINIMUM LEVEL OF COMPETENCE. Answer has several missed issues, too much doctrine not clearly presented, or too little analysis (use of facts) of issues. Some good material, but can’t pass when important issues were not recognized or handled well. May be able to improve into passing range with sustained work and practice.
  D/D+ WEAK ANSWER. Some issues spotted and some doctrine covered, but rules and analyses were often incomplete, incorrect, and/or confused. Demonstrates difficulty comprehending and/or applying several doctrines. Needs serious improvement to move into passing range.
  D- NEAR FAILING. The answer needs major improvement in most respects. Missed major issues and inaccurately stated doctrine. Overall does not demonstrate sufficient fluency with material or basics of analysis. Unlikely to recover without extensive and intensive work.
  F FAILING. Answer fails to adequately address the question in all respects. Demonstrates a lack of comprehension of the materials and of legal analysis. Answer has few or no redeeming qualities, and is clearly failing.

C. Pass/Fail-Graded Courses

  1. Pass/Fail grading is used for Introduction to Law, Legal Analysis, Bar Studies, Legal Internship, Directed Study, and certain elective courses, particularly those based on oral performance.
  2. Grades in Pass/Fail courses are not computed in the cumulative GPA, but will appear on the student’s transcript. To pass and receive credit, a student’s performance must equal or exceed that which would earn a “C-” in a letter-graded course. No credit will be awarded for the grade of “Fail”, which denotes performance that would earn a grade of “D+” or below in letter-graded courses. The following grades may be assigned:
Transcript Notation Description  
HP High Pass (performance equal to A, A- or B+)
P Pass (performance equal to B through C)
MP Marginal Pass (performance equal to C-)
FA Fail (performance equal to D+ or lower)

D. Other grade/status designations used to indicate a student’s grade or status at the School, and which may appear on the student’s transcript and/or other records, are:

  Academically Disqualified Student has been academically disqualified from the School.
  Academic & FA Probation Student is on academic and financial aid probation.
  Graduate Student has graduated from the School.
  Standard Period of Non-Enrollment Student has received the Dean’s permission to skip a single summer session
  INC Incomplete. Used in the very rare circumstance where the student has been permitted to have additional time to complete the requirements for a particular course. Where a student is permitted to receive an incomplete, the student must complete the mandated course requirements within the period of time specified by the Dean or Faculty Chair; otherwise, the course grade will revert to an “F” or, if a Pass/Fail course, to a “Fail”.
  IP* In progress. Used in two-semester courses with respect to completion of the first semester. Courses of more than one semester (such as Torts, etc.) carry no credit until successful completion of both semesters.
    *Note: IP grades given at the end of the first semester of a two-semester course will be changed upon completion of the entire course to reflect the final course grade. For example, at the end of Fall semester, the transcript of a student enrolled in Contracts I will indicate “IP”; if that student earns a final course grade of “C+” in the Contracts course, the student’s transcript for the Fall semester Contracts I course will, at the end of Spring semester, reflect the grade of “IP/C+” for Contracts I and the grade of “C+” for the Spring semester Contracts II course.
  R Course repeated. This notation appears next to the effective grade, which is the higher of the two grades in a repeated course. The prior grade also appears.
  TC Transfer Credit. Unit credit from prior law school attendance (when granted).
  W Withdrawal. Student is withdrawn (or deemed withdrawn), without indicating whether in continued good standing or otherwise than in continued good standing.

 

10.2 JD - Calculation of Letter-Graded Exam Grades


A. Each letter-graded exam that is counted toward the final grade in any course is considered a separate, closed, and completed event. (An exam is defined to include an examination, paper, project, or other work product or activity used to measure performance.) Several steps may be involved in determining a letter-graded exam grade.

  1. The instructor assigns a separate letter grade to each constituent part of the exam, such as each essay question on a typical three-essay exam. For example:
  Essay 1 C+
  Essay 2 B
  Essay 3 C
  1. Based on COL’s 4-point scale (set forth below), the equivalent numerical points are assigned for each letter grade. For example:
  Essay 1 C+ 2.3 points
  Essay 2 B 3.0 points
  Essay 3 C 2.0 points
       
  4-Point Scale (Letter Grades and Points)
  A 4.0   C 2.0
  A- 3.7   C- 1.7
  B+ 3.3   D+ 1.3
  B 3.0   D 1.0
  B- 2.7   D- 0.7
  C+ 2.3   F 0.0
  1. If all parts of the exam are of equal weight (worth the same percentage of the exam grade), the points for all parts are added together and divided by the number of equal parts to determine the pre-rounded exam score. A pre-rounded exam score is calculated to the nearest thousandth (3 digits after the decimal point) and that number is not rounded. In the example, if the three essay questions are of equal weight, the pre-rounded score is calculated as follows and the pre-rounded score is 2.433.
  Essay 1 C+ 2.3 points
  Essay 2 B 3.0 points
  Essay 3 C 2.0 points
  Total points:   7.3 points

(7.3 points divided by 3 (equal parts) = 2.433 points)

  1. If the pre-rounded score is a number on the 4-point scale, the exam grade is the corresponding letter grade. For example, a pre-rounded score of 2.3 is the point equivalent of “C+”, which becomes the exam grade. If the pre-rounded score is not a number on the 4-point scale, the score is rounded up or down. The pre-rounded score is rounded down if it falls below the mid-point between the two numbers closest to the pre-rounded score on the 4-point scale. In the example in Paragraph 3 above, the pre-rounded score of 2.433 falls between “B-” (2.7) and “C+” (2.3). Because the pre-rounded score falls below the mid-point between the two (2.5), it is rounded down to 2.3 and the exam grade would be “C+”. In contrast, the pre-rounded score is rounded up if it falls at or above the mid-point between the two closest numbers on the 4-point scale. For example, a pre-rounded score of 2.566 points falls above 2.5, which is the halfway point between “B-” (2.7) and “C+” (2.3). The resulting exam grade would be “B-“.

    This chart shows pre-rounded scores, corresponding exam grades, and mid-points:
  Pre-rounded score Rounds to exam grade (Midpoint)
  3.85+ A 4.0 (3.85)
  3.50 to 3.849… A- 3.7 (3.50)
  3.15 to 3.499… B+ 3.3 (3.15)
  2.85 to 3.149… B 3.0 (2.85)
  2.50 to 2.849… B- 2.7 (2.50)
  2.15 to 2.499… C+ 2.3 (2.15)
  1.85 to 2.149… C 2.0 (1.85)
  1.50 to 1.849… C- 1.7 (1.50)
  1.15 to 1.499… D+ 1.3 (1.15)
  0.85 to 1.149… D 1.0 (0.85)
  0.35 to .849… D- 0.7 (0.35)
  0.00 to .349 F 0.0  

10.3 JD - Calculation of Course Grades


  1. Each letter-graded course is considered a separate, closed, and completed event, including courses longer than one semester. To calculate a course grade, the School multiplies each exam grade (usually for a mid-term or a final examination, but also for an assignment or other graded activity) by its relative weight to the overall grade.
  2. Only exam grades, not pre-rounded grades, are used when calculating course grades. These examples compare the proper calculation of a course grade in Contracts (based on exam grades) with an improper calculation (based on pre-rounded grades):
  1. Assumptions:
    First year midterm exam worth 15 percent of course grade:
      pre-rounded score = 2.433    
      exam grade = C+ (2.3 points)
    Final exam worth 85 percent of course grade:
      pre-rounded score = 2.866    
      exam grade = B (3.0 points)
  2. Correct calculation, using rounded exam scores:
    Midterm: 2.3 points x .15 = .345
    Final: 3.0 points x .85 = 2.550
    Total points   = 2.895
    Course grade:   = B (3 points)
  3. Incorrect calculation, using unrounded exam scores:
    Midterm: 2.433 x .15 = .365
    Final: 2.866 x .85 = 2.436
    Total points   = 2.800
    Course grade:   = B- (2.7 points)

 

10.4 JD - Calculation of Cumulative Grade Point Average


  1. In calculating the cumulative GPA, only course grades are used-not exam grades or pre-rounded grades. As explained in Paragraph B below, letter grades in Summer session are calculated into the GPA after Summer session but generally are considered for the purpose of determining academic standing only at the end of the following academic year.
  2. To calculate the cumulative GPA, multiply the final grade in each letter-graded course by its unit value, total the sum of the products for all such courses, and divide that sum by the total number of letter-graded units. The cumulative GPA is expressed on the transcript as a number. For example, the cumulative GPA for a first-year student starting in Fall semester who had course grades of “B” (3.0 points) in Contracts, “B+” (3.3) in Torts and “B” (3.0) in Criminal Law is calculated at the end of the first year as 3.12, in this manner:
First Year Grades
  Legal Analysis and Writing (pass/fail-not considered)
  Contracts 3.0 x 6 (units) = 18.0
  Torts 3.3 x 6 (units) = 19.8
  Criminal Law 3.0 x 3 (units) = 9.0
  Grade points (for 15.0 units) = 46.8
  GPA (46.8 points divided by 15 units) = 3.12
 

The student advances in good standing past the first year of law school. Grades earned in subsequent years would then be added to the prior year(s) grades to determine a student’s cumulative GPA.

Summer Grades (counted towards GPA at end of Second Year)

For example, as the student above continues into the Summer session following his first year, and earns grades of “C” in Legal Research, “C+” in Consumer Law and Pass in Client Interviewing and Counseling, the grades earned are calculated below:

  Client Interview (pass/fail-not considered)
  Legal Research 2.0 x 2 (units) = 4.0
  Legal Writing 2.3 x 2 (units) = 4.6
  Grade points (for 4.0 units) = 8.6
  Grade Points (First Year) = 46.8
  Grade Points (Summer Session) = 8.6
  Total Grade Points thus far   55.4
 

As the student continues into the Second Year curriculum, his GPA based on grades of “B-” in Community Property and Real Property, “C” in Civil Procedure, and “B+” in Wills and Trusts would be calculated at the end of the second year as:

  Second Year Grades
  Community Property 2.7 x 3 (units) = 8.1
  Real Property 2.7 x 6 (units) = 16.2
  Civil Procedure 2.0 x 6 (units) = 12.0
  Wills & Trusts 3.3 x 3 (units) = 9.9
  Grade Points (for 18.0 units) = 46.2
  Grade Points (First Year) 15 units = 46.8
  Grade Points (Summer Session) 4 units = 8.6
  Grade Points (Second Year) 18 units = 46.2
  Total Grade Points 37 units = 101.6
  Pre-truncated GPA (101.6 grade points divided by 37 units) = 2.7459
 

Because the cumulative GPA is expressed to 3 digits then truncated, this student’s cumulative GPA will be 2.745 at the end of the second year.

10.5 JD - Notification of Grades and Review of Papers


  1. Grades are generally not available until very shortly before the start of the next semester/session. Grades are released for the Fall and Spring semesters only when grades from all courses taken by the student that semester have been submitted by the instructors and approved by the Faculty Chair. Grades will be disseminated by e-mail to the student’s JURIS e-mail account or available online through the password-protected Intuit Portal. Summer session grades will be e-mailed or posted on the Portal as they become available. Grades will not be released by telephone.
  2. Students may review their own examination papers and other papers used to determine course grades. Each student is encouraged to review the instructor’s written feedback and to compare the student’s exam answers to the instructor’s issue sheets or model answers, to better understand the grade assigned. If questions remain, a student may benefit from discussing his or her performance with the instructor.

    Review must be done within 30 days of the date the Administration Office sends the student e-mail notice that exam answers for the student’s courses are available for review, and during regular office hours only. Papers will not be available after that time, for any reason.
  3. Student papers used as a basis to determine grades must be retained at the School according to State Bar policy. Papers may not be removed from the School’s premises for any reason; however, students may scan or make a copy of their own papers at their own expense using equipment on campus. Student papers are the property of the School and may be made available as examples to other students.

10.6 JD - Petition for Change of Grade


  1. Except as otherwise provided in this Catalog, grades will not be changed after approval by the Faculty Chair except to correct an arithmetic error or other material mistake by the instructor, such as incorrect calculation of points noted in the margin or clear failure to read two pages of an exam stuck together. An allegation that an instructor has not fairly graded an examination or other paper of the student, or has departed from established policy, is treated as an allegation of material mistake.
  2. Authority to decide student petitions for change of grade is held by the faculty’s Academic Standards and Admission Committee (ASAC). The ASAC will not authorize a change in any grade without a showing of material mistake by the instructor by clear, convincing, and objectively verifiable evidence; the ASAC will not permit or require a change of any grading decision by an instructor which represents qualitative judgment concerning a student’s performance. Objectively verifiable evidence is not shown by a student’s belief that the analysis deserved a higher grade.
  3. A student is not permitted to lobby an instructor for a change of grade. A student who has identified a potential material mistake may ask the instructor to review the claimed error. At the instructor’s election, the instructor may require the student to submit a written analysis of the claimed error or to present the analysis to the instructor in person.
  4. A student who wishes to appeal a grade must do so by timely filing a written petition for grade change to the ASAC. All such petitions must: 1) be filed at the Administration Office within 14 calendar days of the date the Administration Office sends the student e-mail notice that exam answers for the student’s courses are available for review; 2) state clearly, specifically, and fully the basis for the claim of material mistake; 3) provide clear, convincing, and objectively verifiable evidence of the claimed mistake; and 4) include a copy of any written analysis submitted to the instructor.
  5. Decisions on petitions to the ASAC are made pursuant to the procedures and standards set forth in the Charter for the Academic Standards and Admissions Committee of The Santa Barbara & Ventura Colleges of Law (“the Charter”), a copy of which is available on the Gateway (My.CollegesofLaw.edu/.)

10.7 JD - Repetition of Courses


Except as provided by Section 6.9 Satisfactory Academic Progress (SAP): JD Program  , students may repeat courses only with the permission of the Dean or as required by decision of the Academic Standards and Admissions Committee (ASAC) as a condition of probation or readmission. When a course is repeated, both course grades will be shown on the student’s transcript. The most recent of the two course grades will determine a student’s academic standing and academic units earned, and, if a letter grade, will be used to calculate the student’s cumulative GPA. Thus, duplicate credit will not be granted for any repeated course. A student who has repeated a course is not eligible to receive the “highest grade in course” award for that course. Tuition will be charged for repeated courses.

10.8 JD - Academic Honors


  1. The Dean’s Award for Academic Achievement is presented each year to the student in each class year with the highest cumulative GPA. The Dean’s Honor List is announced annually and includes students in each class year whose cumulative grade point averages place them in the top 15 percent of the class. Awards are given at an Awards Banquet each year; students who have completed at least one full year are eligible.
  2. Honors are awarded at graduation to students who complete the degree requirements with distinction, as follows:
    1. High Honors: Students in the top 5 percent of graduating class, including the student with highest GPA, who will be designated Valedictorian and awarded Highest Honors.
    2. Honors: Students in next 10 percent of graduating class.

11.1 JD - General Provisions


  1. Anonymous Grading
    1. All graded written examinations will be taken and graded on an anonymous basis; all graded written assignments will be submitted and graded on an anonymous basis except as provided below. All ungraded work may be evaluated non-anonymously and, of necessity, non-anonymous grading will be used for all performance-based graded activities.
    2. The Administration Office at each campus will provide students with a randomly selected exam number at the beginning of each academic year. The numbers are completely confidential and are not available to anyone outside the Administration Office. Students are cautioned not to reveal their exam numbers to faculty under any circumstance. The student’s exam number, not the student’s name, is to be written on the front of all exam answers and written assignments. It is up to each student to use the correct number on all exam answers and assignments. Graded written exams and assignments will be evaluated by student exam number, except as noted below.
    3. Instructors in some elective courses may evaluate graded written work on a non-anonymous basis where such evaluation is necessary to advance the educational objectives of the course (Appellate Advocacy Briefs, for example). Non-anonymous evaluation of graded written work may take place only with the Faculty Chair’s permission and with prior notice to students. Instructors in all courses may evaluate responses to ungraded written exercises non-anonymously.
    4. Instructors in elective online courses may evaluate graded student work submitted through Canvas on a non-anonymous basis without any further notice.
  2. Take Home Examinations/Assignments
    Students must deliver take-home examinations/assignments to their instructor as directed, usually via unsecure ExamSoft upload, submission through the instructor’s TWEN page or in hard copy.  The Administration Office will not accept delivery of take-home examinations/assignments via fax or e-mail, except in emergency situations.
  3. Weight of Examinations
    1. In each first year course of more than one semester the midterm exam will count for 15 percent, and the final exam will count for the remaining 85 percent, of the final course grade.
    2. In advanced courses, the relative weight of the midterm and final examinations, and any graded assignments, will be announced at the beginning of each course.

11.2 JD - Exam Schedule


  1. Posting of Exam Schedule
    A schedule listing the times and dates of the midterm and final examinations for the current semester or session will be posted on bulletin boards or the Gateway. The schedule will also list deadlines by which students requesting to use ExamSoft or receive special examination accommodations must submit their request to the Administration Office. Mid-semester exams, when given, will be administered during class as announced by the instructor.
  2. Exam Schedule
    All examinations for first through third year students will be given on a comprehensive basis for each class year, except for Spring-start semester examinations, Summer session examinations, midterms in one-semester courses, Fall semester first-year examinations, and the Professional Responsibility course final examination.  Generally, exams will be administered so that students will be required to complete essay exam sections separately from multiple-choice/short answer exam sections.

    During Fall and Spring semesters, an Exam Preparation Period is scheduled between the end of classes and the Exam Period. Comprehensive examinations for academic year classes will be given on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of the Exam Period, from 6:30 p.m. - 9:30 p.m. Students must be prepared to answer questions in any subject being tested during the Exam Period. Questions will be labeled by subject, but the order of questions will be random.
    1. Spring Start and First Year
      1. Spring-Start final exams will be given during the last class session of each course, when used.
      2. First Year Exams

        Fall Semester: Torts and Contracts will be tested (grades for the course in Legal Analysis & Writing will be based on assignments and/or testing previously completed). Tests will be given Monday and Wednesday evenings (6:30 p.m. - 9:30 p.m.) for a total of six hours over the two-night period. Over such exam period, testing will be done on Torts one night and Contracts the other night, but students will not know in advance which subject will be tested. For example, if Torts were tested on Monday night then Contracts would be tested on Wednesday night, or vice versa. Exams will be labeled as to subject.

        Spring Semester: Torts, Contracts, and Criminal Law will be tested. Tests will be given Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday evenings (6:30 p.m. - 9:30 p.m.) for a total of nine hours over the three-night period. Over such exam period, testing will be evenly divided among the three subjects. The questions will be randomly selected from the three subjects, but labeled as to subject.
    2. Second Year

      Fall Semester: Civil Procedure, Community Property, and Real Property will be tested. Tests will be given Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday evenings (6:30 p.m. - 9:30 p.m.) for a total of nine hours over the three-night period. Over such exam period, testing will be divided among the three subjects. The questions will be randomly selected from the three subjects, but labeled as to subject.

      Spring Semester: Civil Procedure, Wills & Trusts, and Real Property will be tested. Tests will be given Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday evenings (6:30 p.m. - 9:30 p.m.) for a total of nine hours over the three-night period. Over such exam period, testing will be evenly divided among the three subjects. The questions will be randomly selected from the three subjects, but labeled as to subject.
       
    3. Third Year

      Fall Semester: Constitutional Law and Business Associations will be tested. Tests will be given Monday and Wednesday evenings (6:30 p.m. - 9:30 p.m.) for a total of six hours over the two-night period. Over such exam period, testing will be evenly divided between each subject. The questions will be randomly selected from the two subjects, but labeled as to subject. (The final exam in Professional Responsibility will be given during the last class session; a final exam will be given in Evidence at the end of Spring Semester.)

      Spring Semester: Constitutional Law, Remedies, and Evidence will be tested. Tests will be given Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday evenings (6:30 p.m. - 9:30 p.m.) for a total of nine hours over the three-night period. Over such exam period, testing will be evenly divided among the three subjects. The questions will be randomly selected from the three subjects, but labeled as to subject.
       
    4. Fourth Year
      Fourth Year final examinations are given in the last class session or during Exam Preparation Week, as posted.
  3. Summer Session Exam Schedule
    Exams will not be rescheduled to accommodate vacation plans. Students should consult course syllabi prior to making vacation plans to determine exam schedules. Final exams, when given for a Summer session course, will be given as follows:
    1. Onsite Courses: Final exams will be given during the last class session of an onsite course.
    2. Online Courses: Final exams will be given at each campus on the Saturday afternoon prior to the last week of an online course, under regular exam conditions. Final exams will not be given online.

11.3 - Exam Supplies and Procedures


  1. Examination Supplies
    Students must bring a sufficient supply of pens (blue or black ink only) to the exam. Students who are typing their exams must bring their own laptop and pens to be used in the event of laptop failure. The School will provide bluebooks and scratch paper. Earplugs are permitted but other devices (headphones, iPods, MP3 players, etc.) are not.
  2. Exam Room Procedures
    1. All exams are scheduled to begin at 6:30 p.m. unless otherwise posted. Anyone arriving after the exam has begun will not be given extra time at the end of the exam period. Students should arrive on campus early when taking examinations.
    2. Books, study notes, other course materials, purses, briefcases, headphones, iPods, and cell phones are not permitted in the exam room, unless placed in the front or back of the room away from the student’s desk. Students may not access such materials until after the exam has ended. Students may not bring timers into the examination room, nor may they use cell phones at any time during the exam in the exam room or outside of it. Eating, drinking (this includes water), and smoking in the exam room are absolutely prohibited.
    3. Prior to the Exam: At 6:30 p.m. (unless otherwise posted) the proctor will make several announcements about examination policies in general and the examination to be administered in particular. Students will be held accountable for the content of the announcements.
  3. Labeling Bluebooks
    1. Bluebooks and scratch paper will be distributed at the start of the exam period. Special time before the beginning of the examination period will not be given to label bluebooks. Students must label their bluebooks within the allotted time allowed for the examination. All exams must be properly labeled during the examination period. No extra time will be given to label answers after time has been called at the end of the examination. Students may not use highlighter pens on their examination answers. Students should label bluebooks in the following manner:
  STUDENT EXAM NUMBER #22222 (EXAMPLE)
  COURSE NAME TORTS, Q #1, BOOK 1 OF 2 (EXAMPLE)
  INSTRUCTOR SMITH (EXAMPLE)
  DATE 12-14-07 (EXAMPLE)
  1. Students must start each question in a new bluebook, if handwriting.

11.4 - Conduct During the Exam


  1. No breaks are given during examinations. A student may leave the examination room during the exam to use the restroom or lounge facilities. Exam questions and bluebooks may not be removed from the exam room. If a student becomes ill during the exam and cannot continue, the student should contact the proctor for instructions.
  2. If a student finishes the exam more than 10 minutes before the end of the exam period, the student may hand his/her exam answers and the exam questions to the proctor and quietly leave the examination room. The student may not shut down, pack up or remove his or her laptop from the exam room until the exam is over. If less than 10 minutes remains in the exam period, the student must remain in his or her seat and wait until time is called. It is the student’s responsibility to see that his or her bluebooks have been received and checked-in by the proctor.
  3. Unless otherwise expressly permitted by the instructor (as in an open book exam), students may not use books, notes, or any review materials during an examination. Talking is prohibited during the exam. During an exam, use of any electronic device other than an ExamSoft-protected laptop computer and watch is forbidden and subject to disciplinary action.
  4. When time is called, the student must stop writing or typing immediately. The proctor will report to the Dean any student who does not stop writing or typing when told to do so. If a student is in the middle of a sentence, s/he must stop at that point and not attempt to complete the sentence.
  5. Handwritten exam answers cannot be considered for grading unless they are handed, in person, to the proctor before leaving the examination room. Outlines on separate pieces of (scratch) paper are not considered part of the exam answer and will not be accepted. It is the student’s responsibility to turn in to the proctor, in the correct manner, his/her correct bluebooks, the exam questions, and all scratch paper taken by the student, used or unused. Students who fail to properly turn in bluebooks, exam questions, or scratch paper, or who turn in blank, unintended, or incorrect bluebooks will receive a grade of “F” on the exam questions applicable to such bluebooks, with no right of make-up, substitution, or other special consideration. Students using ExamSoft will be required to electronically submit their exam answers within 12 hours of the end of the exam period. A late fee applies. (See Section 11.6 )
  6. When time is called at the end of the exam period, students must line up in an orderly manner to hand their exam answers for each exam question to the proctor. Students should not leave the exam room until their bluebooks have been recorded as received by the proctor. All students must also turn in the examination questions. Students may not take the questions from the exam room in any form.

11.5 - Handwriting the Exam


Exams must be written in blue or black ink, never in pencil, and on only one side of the page. Students must start each question in a new bluebook. Only answers recorded in the bluebooks or designated answer sheets distributed by the proctor may be submitted for grading. Outlines or other writing on loose or stapled pieces of paper will not be accepted as part of the student’s answer, unless otherwise specified at the start of the exam.

11.6 - Use of ExamSoft-Protected Laptops


  1. Students may use laptops (PCs or Macs) to take graded examinations only if they are protected by ExamSoft software, which blocks access to other software. (ExamSoft is not available for practice exams except as necessary for ADA accommodations.) Detailed information about the use of ExamSoft is provided below and on the Gateway (https://My.CollegesofLaw.edu/.)
  2. Students wishing to use ExamSoft must make all the following prior arrangements:
    1. Prior to the examination period, register online with ExamSoft. Contact ExamSoft at www.examsoft.com/sbvcl. For technical support, call (866) 429-8889, Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. - 8:30 p.m. EST.
    2. Prior to arriving at the School to take an exam, complete download of the current ExamSoft program, “SofTest”, as well as the exam file that will be used during the exam period.
    3. On the evening of the exam, bring a laptop to the assigned typing room and be prepared to begin the examination by 6:20 p.m.
  3. ExamSoft users are expected to follow the examination procedures outlined above (except as applicable to the use of bluebooks), including the proper labeling of exam answers. Laptop users may use earplugs. Students are advised to bring a watch or clock, because the positioning of typing tables may make it difficult to monitor the time otherwise.
  4. Students must start each question on a new screen.
  5. Students may not shut down, pack up or remove their laptops from the exam room until the exam period has ended.
  6. The School assumes no responsibility for any interruption in power, for any computer mechanical breakdown, or for any problem a student may encounter using a laptop or ExamSoft. No extra time or any other consideration will be allowed for any interruption, whether it is isolated or widespread. The student assumes all risks of using a computer to take an examination.
  7. When time is called at the end of the examination, students must submit their exam answers via the Internet within 12 hours of the end of the exam period. The student’s answer will subsequently be printed on one of the School’s printers for submission to the instructor. A late fee will be imposed for each late-submitted exam answer. Further, a student who fails to submit any exam answer within 48 hours after the end of the exam period will receive an “F” on that exam answer, unless the student establishes good cause for the failure to timely submit the answer.

11.7 - Special Accommodations for Examinations


Students with disabilities or other conditions necessitating special examination conditions should contact the Administration Office as early as possible after enrollment so that appropriate arrangements can be made. See Section 3.14, Accommodation for Students with Disabilities .

11.8 - Failure to Take an Examination


Students are required to take exams as scheduled; to “take” an exam means the student must sit for the exam sessions and provide a substantial answer to each essay question or other major component of the exam for each course tested. Failure to take either a midterm or final examination in a course will result in receiving an “F” for that course. A student who takes none of his or her scheduled exams for a semester or Summer session will be administratively withdrawn from the School other than in continued good standing. See Section 6.3 Withdrawal: JD Program .

11.9 - Requests for Early or Late Examinations


  1. By written request made before the examination to the Registrar, a student who is unable, for good cause, to take an examination as scheduled may be permitted to take an exam at other than the regularly scheduled time. Students with potential good cause are encouraged to discuss their circumstances with the Registrar, to avoid jeopardizing their academic standing by taking exams while seriously ill or otherwise compromised.
  2. Good cause is defined as, at the time of the examination, a religious holiday observance, unavoidable employment or military duty obligations, or extreme, immediate, unforeseeable, and unavoidable circumstances such as serious illness. Good cause does not include discretionary plans such as vacations. The good cause giving rise to the need to reschedule an examination must be fully documented in writing to the satisfaction of the Registrar.
  3. A student should never contact the instructor about the need to reschedule an exam, to preserve the anonymity of the student’s exam.
  4. In the case of an extreme emergency where the student is physically unable to contact the Administration Office before the exam, the student or his or her representative must contact the Office no later than 2 working days thereafter. The student must then provide a written explanation of the emergency together with documentation, such as a physician’s statement. The Dean will rule whether good cause for not taking the exam existed. Permission to take late exams is not automatically granted, and under no circumstances will it be granted where the student has failed to meet the requirements of this section.
  5. Upon approval of the student’s timely request under Paragraphs A or D above, an early or late examination must be taken within 1 week of the day the exam had originally been scheduled. Students taking more than one such exam may be required to take such exams on consecutive days. Early or late examinations are scheduled only during regular office hours. A rescheduled exam will be deemed to have begun at the new scheduled time; students arriving late or unprepared to begin at the new scheduled time will not be given extra time. A fee may be charged to take an early or late examination.

11.10 - Make-Up Examinations


  1. Students who are unable to take an early or late examination within the one-week period described above must timely request a make-up examination. (See Section 11.9 .) Untimely requests will not be considered.
  2. A request for a make-up examination generally will not be granted except when serious illness of the student or other severe circumstances would justify a failure to sit for an examination, as set forth above, during the period prescribed for early/late examinations. In the rare instance that a request for a make-up examination is granted, a substantial fee will be charged.
  3. In lieu of a make-up exam, the Administration may on occasion allow or require the student who has made a timely request for a make-up exam to receive a grade of Incomplete for the course and to take an exam at the next regularly scheduled examination period for the course concerned. This option is not available as to an untimely request.

12.1 Graduation - Juris Doctor degree


  1. Graduation Requirements
    Upon timely meeting the requirements for graduation, the degree of Juris Doctor (JD) will be conferred. To be eligible to graduate a student must:
    1. Complete the required academic program by the end of the summer after fourth year.
    2. Complete a total of 84 units and satisfy all residency requirements.
    3. Achieve a cumulative grade point average of not less than 2.00.
    4. Pay all fees, charges, and tuition due.
  2. Academic Honors are awarded as described in Section 10.8 , Academic Honors.
  3. Graduation Dates and Ceremony
    Students may complete their graduation requirements at the end of either the Fall or Spring semester of the fourth year. One graduation ceremony for both groups is held annually in May. The Graduation Processing Fee (for the Class of 2016 and previous year graduates) is owed without regard to whether a student participates in the graduation ceremony. In exceptional circumstances, a student may petition for permission to graduate at the end of the following Summer session. Students will be deemed graduated, and degrees will be dated, as follows:
  Degree requirements completed Graduation date
  Fall semester January 15 (following year)
  Spring semester May 15 (same year)
  Summer session (by petition only) August 15 (same year)

13.1 Committee of Bar Examiners Regulations


  1. General Provisions
    It is each student’s responsibility to comply with the rules of the Committee of Bar Examiners (CBE) of the State Bar of California and to determine applicable deadlines with which the student must comply to meet requirements for bar admission. A copy of Rules Regulating Admission to Practice Law in California and further information may be found on the State Bar web site, http://admissions.calbar.ca.gov/.

    The CBE does not allow the School to grant a JD degree to any student who fails to complete graduation requirements within 84 months of commencing law study.
  2. Registration as a Law Student
    Every law student in the State of California is required to register with the CBE to be eligible for CBE exams and to receive important information. It is the student’s responsibility to access the registration form at http://admissions.calbar.ca.gov/ within the 90-day time frame required by the State Bar.
  3. First-Year Law Students’ Examination (FYLSX)
    1. “Special Student”
      1. A student who enters law school with less than 60 units of acceptable academic credit (“Special Student”) must take the First-Year Law Students Examination (FYLSX) after completing the first-year curriculum.
      2. The CBE administers the FYLSX, a one-day test, twice per year, usually in June and October. The CBE imposes a fee for the examination. The examination covers the subjects of Contracts, Torts and Criminal Law. Students may apply online at: www.calbarxap.com/Applications/CalBar/California_Bar_1st_Year_Exam/default.asp
      3. A “special student” will have three consecutive administrations of the FYSLX (whether or not the student sits for the exam) in which to pass the examination and retain credit for coursework subsequent to the first-year curriculum. If the student does not pass the test within the three administrations, s/he will not receive credit for any law studies after the end of the first-year curriculum and will not be allowed to continue law studies until the FYLSX is passed.
  4. Professional Responsibility Examination
    As a prerequisite for admission to practice law in California, all applicants must pass the National Conference of Bar Examiners’ Multi-State Professional Responsibility Examination (MPRE). The National Conference of Bar Examiners administers the exam. Application forms are available by contacting www.ncbex.org.
  5. Application for Determination of Moral Character
    Prior to sitting for the California Bar Examination, students must file an application for determination of moral character with the State Bar. This application is also known as a preliminary evaluation of the State Bar’s Rule X qualification and initiates the moral character screening process. This process is time-consuming; to avoid delay in bar admission, students are encouraged to begin this process no later than the summer before the year they intend to take the Bar Examination. Instructions and an online application are available at www.calbarxap.com/Applications/CalBar/California_Bar_Moral_Character/default.asp. The State Bar urges all applicants to fully disclose all information requested on the application so approval is not delayed.
  6. California Bar Examination
    1. Students planning to sit for the California Bar Examination must file an application with the CBE prior to the exam. The CBE administers the Bar Examination twice per year, in February and July. It is a two-day test. Graduates may apply online at: www.calbarxap.com/Applications/CalBar/California_Bar_Exam/default.asp.
    2. If, for any reason, a student has not successfully completed his or her law school program, that student must apply to the CBE for an evaluation to determine eligibility to take the Bar Examination.
    3. Information on California Bar Examination and statistics about pass rates can be found on the State Bar website at: http://admissions.calbar.ca.gov/Examinations/CaliforniaBarExam.aspx.
  7. Practical Training of Law Students
    1. Under the Rules Governing Practical Training of Law Students, law students may be certified to work with a supervising attorney providing legal services to clients. Rules and application forms are available online at: admissions.calbar.ca.gov/Education/LegalEducation/PracticalTrainingofLawStudentsProgram.aspx.
    2. To qualify as a certified law student, the applicant must either have completed, or be currently enrolled in, the Civil Procedure and Evidence courses and be a student in good academic standing at the School.
    3. A certified law student may perform any function on behalf of a client that would be appropriate for a licensed attorney as long as these functions are performed under the direct supervision of the supervising attorney and with the consent of the client. These functions include appearing on the client’s behalf in a trial, hearing, or proceeding. A certified law student may negotiate on behalf of a client and render legal services under supervision.